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The European Community Pressure Equipment DIRECTIVE "PED"

Essential Safety Requirements "ESRs"

A Comparison with BS 5500 and ASME VIII Div 1

 

The European Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC, (PED), places full

responsibility upon the manufacturer of pressure equipment to comply with

the provisions of the Directive.

On completion of all design, manufacturing, inspection and testing procedures,

and after verification of conformity, the manufacturer can make a Declaration

of Conformity with the PED.

The manufacturer can then affix the CE marking which ensures that the equipment

will have freedom of movement within the European Community.

 

An important requirement is that the manufacturer must comply with all the

Essential Safety Requirements, (ESRs), in Annex 1 of the PED which are relevant

to the equipment for which he makes the Declaration of Conformity.

 

The following table provides a summary of all the ESRs and shows, by reference

to the relevant clauses in BS 5500 and ASME VIII Div 1, where it is considered

that these codes satisfy the ESRs.

 

Numbers in brackets ( ) refer to notes, see end of table.

     Sub     PED Essential Safety Requirement                          ³ASME VIII     EN

   Section                                                                                     ³  Div1            5500

  1          GENERAL                                                                   ³

             ========                                                                     ³

       1.1   Equipment must be designed,  manufactured and     ³

             checked, and installed in such a way as to                   ³  (6)                 (1)

             ensure put into service in accordance with the            ³

             manufacturers instructions.                                          ³

                                                                                                     ³

       1.2   Manufacturer must apply the principles set out        ³

             below in the following order:                                         ³

                -    eliminate or reduce hazards as far as                  ³

                     is reasonably practicable,                                     ³  (6)                  (1)

                -    apply appropriate protection measures               ³

                     against hazards                                                      ³

                -    inform users of residual hazards                          ³

                                                                                                    ³

       1.3   The pressure equipment designed to prevent           ³  (6)                  (1)

             danger from misuse or, adequate warning given.        ³

                                                                                                    ³

 

                                            Page 2 of 11

2      DESIGN                                                                             ³

       ======                                                                                ³

       2.1   The pressure equipment must be properly                ³

             designed to be safe throughout its intended                ³

             life.                                                                                 ³  U-2              3.1

             Design must incorporate appropriate safety               ³

             coefficients.                                                                   ³

                                                                                                     ³

      2.2.1  To be designed for loadings appropriate                   ³ UG-22        3.2.1

             use.                                                                                 ³

                                                      

      2.2.2  Design for adequate strength based on:                   ³

             -  a calculation method and supplemented if                ³

               necessary by an experimental design method.          ³                    3.2.2

             -  an experimental Design method without                   ³   U-2

               calculation, when the product of the maximum          ³                3.2.2(3)

               allowable pressure PS and the volume V is les          ³

               than 6 000 bar x Liters.                                               ³

                                                                                                    ³

    2.2.3(a) The allowable stresses for pressure equipment      ³ UG-23

             must be limited having regard to reasonably               ³

             foreseeable failure modes, safety factors must           ³

             be applied to.                                                                 ³

             Requirements may be met by applying one of the      ³                    (8)*

             following methods                                                          ³

             -  Design by formula                                                      ³         Section 3

             -  Design by analysis                                                     ³           Annex A

             -  Design by fracture mechanics;                                  ³ U-2(g)    Annex U

             *  Design by analysis or fracture mechanics               ³

                only permitted where formulas do not exist.             ³

                                                                                                     ³

    2.2.3(b) Appropriate design calculations must be used to    ³

             establish the resistance of the pressure                       ³

             equipment concerned.                                                   ³

             In particular:                                                                  ³

             -  the calculation pressures must not be less               ³ UG-21       3.2.3

                than the maximum allowable pressures and             ³

                take into account static head and dynamic               ³

                fluid pressures and the decomposition of                  ³

                unstable fluids.                                                            ³

           

 

 

 

 

                                            Page 3 of 11

             -  the calculation temperature must allow for               ³ UG-20       3.2.4

                appropriate safety margin                                          ³

             -  the Design must take appropriate account               ³UG-22  3.2.4/3.2.5

                of all possible combinations of temperature             ³

                and pressure which might arise under                       ³

                reasonably foreseeable operating                             ³

                conditions.                                                                   ³

             -  maximum stresses and peak stress kept                  ³UG-23        3.1.1

                within the safe limits                                                   ³

             -  the calculation for pressure containment                  ³UG-23      Annex K

                must utilize the values appropriate to the                 ³

                properties of the material, based on                          ³

                documented data.                                                       ³

             -  appropriate joint factors must be applied                 ³UG-27          (1)

             -  the Design must take appropriate account               ³UG-25    3.2.4/3.3

                of all reasonably foreseeable degradation                ³           Annex C

                mechanisms.                                                               ³

                                                                                                     ³

    2.2.3(c) calculated allow for adequate structural                  ³  (7)               (2)

             stability taking into account the risks from                 ³

             transport and handling                                                  ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.2.4   Design by experimental method must be                  ³

             validated by an appropriate test programme               ³

             on a sample representative of the equipment              ³                  3.2.2 &

             the equipment.                                                               ³UG-101        5.8.6

             Test programme must be clearly defined and              ³                      (3)

             must include a pressure strength test.                         ³

 

     2.3     Provisions to Ensure Safe Handling and                    ³

             Operation Method of operation specified for              ³  (8)

             pressure equipment must be such as to preclude        ³

             any reasonably foreseable risk in operation                ³ UG-36

             of the equipment.                                                           ³

             Particular attention must be paid to:                            ³

             - closures and openings,                                                ³UG-135(b)

             - dangerous discharge of pressure relief                     ³                         (1)

               blow-off,                                                                       ³

            - devices to prevent physical access whilst                   ³  (8)

              pressure or a vacuum exists                                        ³UG-35(b)

           

 

 

          

                                             Page 4 of 11

            - surface temperature taking into                                  ³  (7)

              consideration the intended use,                                   ³

            - decomposition of unstable fluids                                 ³    (7)

             Pressure equipment fitted with an access                    ³

             door must be equipped with an automatic                    ³

             or manual device enabling the user easily to               ³    (7)

             ascertain that opening it will not present                     ³

             any hazard.                                                                     ³

             Where the opening can be operated quickly                ³UG-35(b)

             equipment must be fitted with a device to                    ³

             prevent it being opened whenever the pressure          ³

             or temperature of the fluid presents a hazard             ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.4(a)  Pressure equipment must be designed and               ³

             constructed so that all necessary examinations          ³

             to ensure safety can be carried out;                             ³UG-46      3.12(3)

             carried out;                                                                    ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.4(b)  Means of determining the internal condition           ³UG-46         3.12

             of the equipment must be available                              ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.5     Means must be provided for the draining and           ³

             venting of pressure equipment where necessary:          ³UG-25(b)       (1)

             - to avoid harmful effects such as water hammer        ³

               vacuum collapse, corrosion and uncontrolled            ³ (7)

               chemical reactions.                                                      ³

             - to permit cleaning, inspection and                              ³ UG-46

               maintenance in a safe manner.                                   ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.6     Adequate allowance or protection against                 ³ UG-25        3.3

             corrosion or other chemical attack must                      ³

             be provided.                                                                   ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.7     Where erosion or abrasion may arise, adequate       ³ (8)       3.3.4(3)

             must be taken to:                                                           ³

             - minimize that effect by appropriate Design               ³UG-26

             EX/EG replacement of parts instructions.                   ³

                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

                                             Page 5 of 11            

     2.8     Assemblies must be so designed that:                       ³

             - the components to be assembled together                ³ (7)           (2)

               are suitable and reliable for their duty                       ³

             - all the components are properly integrated               ³

               and assembled in an appropriate manner.                 ³

                                                                                                     ³

     2.9     Equipment must be so designed and provided with   ³

             accessories or provision made for their fitting            ³

             as to ensure safe filling and discharge in                     ³

             particular with respect to hazards such as on              ³

             filling:                                                                             ³

             - overfilling or overpressurizatio                                  ³ (6)           (1)

             - instability of the pressure equipment;                       ³

             - on discharge the uncontrolled release of the             ³

               pressurised fluid;                                                         ³

             - on filling or discharge; unsafe connection                  ³

               and disconnection                                                        ³

                                                                                                    ³

     2.10    Where the allowable limits could be exceeded,        ³

             the pressure equipment must be fitted with,                ³

             or provision made for the fitting of suitable                 ³

             protective devices based on the particular                  ³UG-125        3.13

             characteristics of the equipment or assembly.            ³

                                                                                                    ³

     2.11.1  Safety accessories must:                                          ³

             - be designed and constructed as to be reliable           ³UG-126      3.13.1

               and suitable for their intended duty,                           ³

             - be independent of other function,                              ³UG-127      3.13.1

             - comply with appropriate Design principles                ³            3.13.1

              in order to obtain suitable and reliable                        ³

              protection.                                                                     ³

                                                                                                    ³

     2.11.2  Pressure Limiting Devices                                        ³

             Must be so designed that the pressure will                 ³UG-131      3.13.2

             not permanently exceed the maximum allowable        ³

             pressure                                                                         ³

                                                                                                    ³

     2.11.3  Temperature Monitoring Devices                           ³(6)           (1)

             Must have an adequate response time.                       ³

                                                                                                    ³

     2.12    Where necessary, pressure equipment must            ³UG-125    1.1.5(3)

             designed and, where appropriate, fitted                       ³U 2 & 3

             accessories, to meet danger-limitation                        ³

             requirements in the event of external fire.                  ³

 

                                   Page 6 of 11

3            MANUFACTURING                                                  ³

             =============                                                          ³

     3.1     The manufacture must ensure the competent           ³

             execution of the provisions set out at the                    ³

             design stage by applying the appropriate                    ³

             techniques and relevant procedures, especially          ³

             with a view to the aspects set out below.                     ³

                                                                                                    ³

     3.1.1   Preparation of the component parts must not           ³

             give rise to defects or cracks or changes                    ³

             in the mechanical characteristics likely to                   ³UG-76          4.2

             be detrimental to the safety of the pressure                ³

             equipment.                                                                     ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.1.2   Permanent joints and adjacent zones must be          ³(7)UW-35    5.6 (3)

             free of any surface or internal defects                         ³

             detrimental to the safety of the equipment.                 ³

             The properties of permanent joints must meet            ³Section IX      4.3

             the minimum properties specified for the                    ³

             materials to be joined unless relevant property          ³

             values are specifically taken into account in               ³

             design.                                                                            ³

                                                                                                    ³

             Permanent joining of components which                      ³ UW-28          4.3

             contribute to the pressure resistance of                      ³

             equipment and components which are directly            ³ UW-29

             attached to them must be carried out by                      ³

             suitably qualified personnel according to                     ³

             suitable operating procedures.                                     ³

                                                                                                     ³

             For pressure equipment in categories II,                     ³  (7)           4.3

             operating procedures and personnel must be              ³

             approved by a competent third party which,                ³

             at the manufacturers discretion, may be:                      

             - a notified body                                                             ³

             - a third-party organisation recognised by a                ³

               Member State as provided for in Article 13.             ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.1.3   Non-destructive tests of permanent joint must        ³  UW-51(a)2

             be carried out by suitable qualified personnel.            ³  App6         5.6.1

             For pressure equipment in categories III and IV        ³  App8

             the personnel must be approved by a third-party³

             organisation.                        

                                                     Page 7 of 11                           ³

     3.1.4   Where the manufacturing process will change the   ³ UW-40         4.4

             material properties to impair the safety of                  ³

             the pressure equipment, suitable heat treatment        ³

             must be applied at the appropriate stage of                ³

             manufacture.                                                                  ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.1.5   Procedures must be established and maintained      ³ UG-77       4.1.2

             for identifying the material making up the                   ³

             components.                                                                   ³

                                                                                                    ³

     3.2     Pressure equipment must be subjected to                 ³

             final assessment as described below.                          ³

                                                                                                    ³

     3.2.1   Equipment must undergo a final inspection              ³ UG-97      5.1(3)

             to asses visually and by examination of the                 ³

             accompanying documents, compliance with the           ³

             requirements of the Directive.                                      ³

             The final inspection must be carried out                      ³

             internally and externally on every part of                    ³

             the equipment, where appropriate in the                      ³

             course of manufacture.                                                  ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.2.2   Final assessment must include a test for                  ³ UG-99     5.8 (3)

             the pressure containment aspect, which will                ³

             normally take the form of a hydrostatic                       ³

             pressure test.                                                                 ³

             For category 1 series-produced pressure                    ³ UG-100    Annex V

             test may be performed on a statistical                         ³               (3)

             basis.                                                                              ³

 

             Where the hydrostatic pressure test is                        ³ (7)         5.8.4

             harmful or impractical, other tests of a                        ³

             recognised value may be carried out.                           ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.2.3   For assemblies, the final assessment must               ³

             also include a check of the safety devices                   ³  UG-125*       (1)

             intended to check full compliance with the                  ³

             requirements referred to in 2.10.                                  ³

             *  Safety devices, whilst in the ASME need                ³

             not be fitted by the vessel manufacturer.                     ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.3     In addition to the CE marking the following              ³

             information must be provided:                                      ³

                                                                                                     ³

    

                                                      Page 8 of 11

    3.3(a)  the name and address of the manufacturer and,       ³

             where appropriate, of his authorised represent           ³   (7)        1.4.4

             within the Community.                                                   ³          5.8.9 (3)

             - the year of manufacture,                                             ³

             - identification of the pressure equipment                    ³

             - essential maximum/minimum allowable limits           ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.3(b)  depending upon the type of equipment, further        ³

             information necessary for safe installation,                 ³   (7)          (2)

             operation or use and, where applicable,                       ³

             maintenance and periodic inspection.                           ³

                                                                                                     ³

     3.3(c)  where necessary, warnings fixed to the                    ³

             equipment drawing attention to misuse which              ³

             experience has shown might occur                               ³   (7)          (2)

             occur.                                                                             ³

           

     3.4     Operating Instructions                                                         ³                (1)

                                                          

                                                        

4            MATERIALS                    

             =========                           

             Materials used for the manufacture of                              ³    UG-4       2.1

             pressure equipment must be suitable for such                ³

             application during the scheduled                                          ³

             lifetime unless replacement is foreseen.                          ³

                                                         

     4.1     Materials for pressurised parts must:                            ³

     4.1(a)  have appropriate properties for all operating             ³    UG-4    2.2(3)

             and be sufficiently ductile and tough.                                  ³   UG-84

             care should be exercised, in particular,                              ³

             in selecting materials and weld pocedures                       ³

             in order to prevent brittle-type fracture;                            ³

                                                    

     4.1(b)  be sufficiently chemically resistant to fluid                  ³    UHA-6    3.3.1

             contained in the pressure equipment;                                ³     (8)

                                                          

     4.1(c)  not be significantly affected by ageing;                         ³               (2)

                                                          

     4.1(d)  be suitable for the intended processing                         ³     (7)       (2)

             procedures.                                  

                                              

 

                                                      Page 9 of 11                      

     4.1(e)  be selected in order to avoid significant                       ³     UG-18     (2)

             undesirable effects when the various materials             ³

             are put together.                         

                                                         

     4.2(a)  The pressure equipment manufacturer must define³      (4)      (4)

             in an appropriate manner the values necessary 

             for the design calculationsreferred to in 2.2.3

             AND                                           

                                                        

     4.2(b)  the manufacturer must provide in his technical          ³      (7)    2.1.2

             documentation elements relating to compliance             ³               (3)

             compliance with the materials specifications of

             the Directive in one of the following forms:  

             - by using Materials which comply with        

               harmonized standards                        

             - by using Materials covered by A European    

               approval of pressure equipment materials    

             - by a particular material appraisal;         

                                                          

     4.2(c)  for equipment in categories III and IV,                        ³       (6)     (2)

             particular appraisal as referred to in the 3rd                   ³

             indent of (b) must be performed by the notified             ³

             body in charge of conformity assessment                        ³

             procedures for the pressure equipment.                          ³

                                                                                                    ³                   

     4.3     Manufacturer must take appropriate measures         ³       UG-93

             to ensure that the material used conforms with              ³

             the required specification.                                                     ³

             In particular, documentation prepared by the                 ³

             material manufacturer affirming compliance with         ³

             a specification must be obtained for all                         

             materials.                                                       

                                                         

             For equipment in categories II, III and IV                        ³       UG-93   (2)

             this must take the form of a certificate of   

             specific product control.                     

                                                          

             Where material manufacture has an appropriate          ³               (6)

             quality assurance system, certified by a      

             competent body established within the Community

             and having undergone a specific assessment for

             materials, certificates issued by the         

             manufacturer are presumed to certify conformity

             with the relevant requirements of this section.

                                             Page 10 of 11                                             

6            PIPING                                                                                    ³        (6)    (1)

             ======                                                                                      ³        goto

                                                                                                                   ³        ASME 31.3B

                                                                                                                   ³

7            SEPCIFIC QUANTITATIVE REQUIREMENTS    ³

             FOR CERTAIN PRESSURE EQUIPMENT.             ³

             =================================             ³

     7.1     Allowable stresses                                                      ³       Annex K (3)

 

     7.2     Joint coefficients                                                         ³               (1)

                                                                                                    ³

     7.3     Pressure limiting devices, particularly for                 ³           Annex J

             pressure vessels                                                           ³

             The momentary pressure surge must keep to 10%    ³

             of the allowable pressure.                                             ³

                                                                                                     ³

     7.4     For pressure vessels, the hydrostatic test                 ³       UG-99 5.8(3)

             must be no less than that corresponding to                 ³

             the maximum loading to which the pressure                ³

             equipment may be subject in service, taking               ³

             into account its maximum allowable pressure             ³

             at its maximum allowable temperature,                       ³

             multiplied by the coefficient 1.25                                  ³

             or                                                                                    ³

             the maximum allowable pressure multiplied                ³

             by the coefficient 1.43                                                   ³

                     whichever is the greater.                                       ³

                                                                                                     ³

     7.5     Unless other values are required in accordance        ³        (6)    (2)

             other criteria that must be taken into account,            ³

             a steel is considered as sufficiently ductile                  ³

             to satisfy 4.1(a) if, in a tensile test carried                   ³

             out by a standard procedure, its elongation                 ³

             after rupture is no less than 14% and its                     ³

             bending rupture energy measured on an ISO V          ³

             test-piece is no less than 27 J, at a                              ³

             temperature not greater than 20C but not higher        ³

             that the lowest scheduled operating procedure.          ³

                                                                                                     ³

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                        Page 11 of 11

NOTES:                                                                                      ³

======                                                                                       ³

(1)  Outside scope of current BS 5500.                                     ³

(2)  Requirements not given in BS 5500.                                  ³

     Consideration needed to inclusion?                                     ³

(3)  Referencclause?                                                                  ³

(4)  Uncertain as to meaning of ESR                                         ³

(6)  Outside the scope of ASME                                               ³

(7)  Requirement not addressed in ASME                                ³

(8)  Requirement partly addressed in ASME                           ³

                                                                                                    ³

(10) EN 13445 harmonization and BS/EN 5500                        ³

                                                                                                    ³


 

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